(Knowledge Science) Introduction to Candy
Candy is a kind of confectionery, which refers to a snack with sugar as the main ingredient. If the fruit or nut food is coated with sugar, it is called a sweet food (such as candied haws).
In the broad sense of Asian culture, chocolate and chewing gum are also considered as a kind of candy. In Europe and the United States, candy refers only to products made with white sugar or maltose. In ancient times, Europe and the United States even used honey as a raw material to make candy, but because of too much honey, it is not easy to control and not suitable for industrial production.
As one of the traditional two pillar snack industries in China, the candy industry has maintained rapid growth and its potential market share has expanded. In the past five years, China's candy market has maintained an annual growth rate of 8%-12%. In 2011, China's candy industry has reached 62 billion yuan.
At the time of the development and expansion of the domestic candy industry, various types of candy, such as health care, low-sugar, fun and eco-type, have accelerated the pace of collective attack on China's high-end candy market. In contrast, the products of China's candy market are very simple. Under the dual pressure of foreign companies pressing and fierce competition from domestic enterprises, China's candy industry product development resistance is heavy.
The competition of domestic candy companies mainly stays at the price level, and the development of new fields is obviously insufficient compared with foreign capital. The homogenization of products has seriously impeded the competition between domestic candy companies and foreign brands, making their profits far less than foreign brands. The main battlefield of domestic brands has also been forced to sink to the second and third-tier markets.
It is worth noting that the global annual per capita consumption of candy is about 3 kg, while China has only 0.7 kg, so China's candy market has great potential for development. The breakout of domestic enterprises should focus on the upgrading of products, continuously introduce new products, and constantly enrich product varieties. China's candy industry is facing the demand pattern of small products and large markets. Candy production enterprises are in the stage of structural adjustment, product renewal, survival of the fittest and corporate restructuring. As the market operation of confectionery products is completed from product competition to marketing, the confectionery industry has entered the era of brand competition.
Candy (English: sweets, Japanese name: キャンディ) can be divided into hard candy, hard sandwich candy, cream candy, gel candy, polished candy, gum-based candy, inflatable candy and tablet candy. The hard candy is a kind of hard and crisp candy with white sugar and starch syrup as the main material; the hard candy is the hard candy with candy in the candy; the cream candy is white sugar and starch syrup (or Other sugar, fat and dairy products, mainly made of protein, no less than 1.5% protein, no less than 3.0% fat, special creamy and coke-flavored candy; gelatin candy is edible gum (or starch), White sugar and starch syrup (or other sugar) are soft candy made from the main material; polished candy is a bright and solid candy; rubber-based candy is mainly white sugar (or sweetener) and gum-based material. Made of chewable or puffable candy; aerated candy is a candy with fine, even bubbles inside the saccharide; the compressed candy is a granulated, bonded, pressed-formed candy.
A disaccharide formed by condensation of two sugar molecules with a а glycosidic bond. It is the main ingredient of sugar. It is prepared by the action of malt containing amylase on starch. Used as a nutrient, also used in the preparation of culture media.
From a chemical point of view: Maltose or Malt Sugar is a chemical term that belongs to the class of disaccharides (disaccharides). It is white needle crystal. The common maltose is not crystallized, and because of the addition of sucrose during cooking, the white maltose is also turned golden yellow, which increases its color and aroma.
Maltose, also known as glutinous rice sugar, is made from wheat and glutinous rice. It is sweet and delicious, rich in nutrients, and has the functions of stomach and digestion. It is a food for all ages.
The production of maltose is roughly divided into the following steps: first soak the wheat and let it germinate to three or four centimeters long, and take the buds and chop them for use. Then wash the glutinous rice, pour it into the pan and mix well with the chopped malt, let it ferment for 3-4 hours until the juice is converted. Then, the juice is filtered out and simmered into a paste with a fire, and after cooling, it becomes amber-shaped candy. Heat it when you eat it, then use two sticks to stir it out. Pull the candy to silvery white like a ramen.
In nature, maltose is mainly found in germinated grains, especially malt, so this name is obtained. Under the action of starch-converting enzyme, starch is hydrolyzed to produce maltose, which is hydrolyzed again to form two molecules of glucose. Maltose can be made into crystals and used as a sweetener, but the sweetness is only 1/3 of that of sucrose. Maltose is an inexpensive nutritious food that is easily digested and absorbed by the body. Maltose has an aldehyde group in its molecular structure and is a reducing sugar. Therefore, a silver mirror reaction can be performed with the silver ammonia solution, or a new brick of copper hydroxide can be reacted to form a brick red precipitate. It can be hydrolyzed under certain conditions to produce two molecules of glucose.
Colorless or white crystals, thick as a thick syrup. The crystalline maltose of one molecule of water melts and decomposes at 102 to 103 °C. Soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol. Reducing disaccharide, which has an aldehyde group reaction, can undergo a silver mirror reaction, and can also be combined with a Bans reagent (prepared with a solution of copper sulfate, sodium carbonate or caustic soda, sodium citrate, etc.) to form a brick red cuprous oxide precipitate. It can fauce bromine water and be oxidized to maltoic acid. Hydrolyzed to 2 molecules of glucose by dilute acid heating or α-glucosidase. Used as food, nutrient, etc. It is prepared by hydrolysis of starch, and is generally obtained by mixing an enzyme in malt with a starch paste and fermenting at a suitable temperature.
Sugar maple, also known as maple syrup, is a tall deciduous tree. Up to 40 meters, the diameter of 40 to 100cm, the age of the tree can reach 500 years. The trunk contains a lot of starch and it becomes sucrose in winter. The warm sucrose turns into a sweet sap. If you drill holes in the tree, the sap will flow out. The sugar made from sap is called maple sugar or maple sugar. Maple sugar is rich in minerals, organic acids, calories lower than sucrose, fructose, corn sugar, etc., but it contains much higher calcium, magnesium and organic acids than other sugars, which can supplement the imbalance of nutrients. constitution. The sweetness of maple syrup is not high in honey, and the sugar content is about 66% (the sugar content of honey is about 79%-81%, and the sugar is as high as 99.4%).
The production season is the maple syrup produced when the harvest season is nearing the end of April. It has a strong atmosphere of maple, is used to cook biscuit cake dessert is also an indispensable seasoning helper, Canada's famous international famous maple candy and maple sugar ice cream is the use of this grade of maple syrup.
The production season is based on the maple syrup produced during the last harvest season of the year at the end of April.
This is a special maple syrup for cooking, which is characterized by a caramel-like taste. Mainly because of its strong smell, it is widely used in cooking, baking, and some special food seasonings. In Europe, America and Japan, it is also used as a spice to make a favorite maple syrup.
From May to August each year, maples store starch at the roots and prepare nutrients for the next year. When the snow melts in the early spring, the starch stored in the roots of the maple tree begins to be converted into sugar. This is the season when the maple sugar workers began collecting sap and making maple syrup. The maple sugar season is very short, usually from mid-March to mid-April, only about six weeks before and after.
The production of maple syrup is also very simple, that is, the maple syrup is heated, the water in the sap is evaporated a little bit, and finally a slightly thick maple syrup is formed. Usually, 40 kilograms of maple juice can only process 1 kilogram of maple. syrup. Maple trees that are only 40 years old or more than 25 cm in diameter will produce useful juice. For the healthy growth of maple trees, the amount of juice should not exceed 5% of the total. Therefore, the price of maple syrup is very expensive, such as a bottle of natural maple syrup only 236ml, the price is 4.99 US dollars.
This sugary maple is not the same as other maples. It is yellow when the autumn is golden, and the other maples are red.
Hazelnut sugar is one of the earliest Chinese confectionery. It is mainly made of cane with rose, sucrose and pine nuts.
Its shape is like a triangular shape, so it is called hazelnut sugar. The hazelnut sugar is hard and transparent, and it can be clearly seen. The rose and pine nuts are evenly scattered in the sugar body. It is like a beautiful crystal stone. It is sweet and fragrant, delicious, and has a clear fragrance of pine nuts and roses. Due to the influence of the climate, it is not suitable for production in summer.
Raw material formula: sucrose, pine nuts, dried roses, liquid glucose, vinegar.
1, the method of sugar is the same as peanut candy.
2, pine nuts, roses must be baked, otherwise it should not be used, so as not to loosen pine nuts, roses still tide, pour into the sugar paste easy to make sugar anti-sand.
3. Cool the sugar to 160 ° C and pour it on the cooling table with flowing water cooling. Sprinkle the pine nuts and dried roses on the sugar paste and fold them back and forth with a spatula. The sugar paste is folded, cooled, and the water is constantly Evaporation, the sugar paste gradually condenses into a soft candy.
4, integer: organize manpower, speed is fast, put the soft candy on the table, divided into small pieces, sugar, smashed into a round strip (note to keep room temperature)
5. Cut sugar: Cut sugar with scissors. When cutting sugar, you should pay attention to turning once every time you cut it. The cut sugar is triangular regardless of which side you look at. Switch to a machine to produce a triangle.
6, packaging: until the sugar is fully cooled and packaged, so as not to stick to sugar.
7, quality standards:
Color: light yellow brown, transparent and shiny. Shape: triangular shape, no broken edge, short angle, 240 ~ 250 pieces per kilogram.
This sugar name is called "Yantang" in Handan City. It is a traditional seasonal special product in Handan City. In ancient times, there was a folk song "Taoyuan (referring to the county), the sugar of the city, and the river's fritters." The long fritters are purely exaggerated, but the famous wine of Taoyuan, the "yellow sugar" of Bengbu City is worthy of the name.
The city of "Coffee" originated in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, and its predecessor was the pipe sugar in the Taoyuan countryside. The sugar in the tube is stained with sesame seeds, and the inside is solid. It looks exactly the same as the later sweet-scented osmanthus sugar. But the taste is very different, there is no aroma of sweet-scented osmanthus, the sweetness of the second sugar-free core, and the crispness of the three without the wall. One year, a pastry chef from Handan City arranged to go to Nanjing with the wood merchants. I saw that the cakes in Nanjing had a few scent of sweet-scented osmanthus, which was very inspired. After returning, osmanthus powder was added to the tube sugar. At first, the aroma is there, but there is no sugar core, and it is still hard to eat.
Soon, the governor’s order was used to collect famous products from all over the country. The master once again went to Nanjing for advice, and he worked well with him to develop it day and night. After some hard work, I finally made a sugar like a tube sugar, hollow, round stem, sweet and delicious.
This kind of sugar was given to the county magistrate and Fujun, and was transferred to the palace as a tribute. They were all listed as “good products” and received awards. Since then, they have become famous and sold more and more. And with the purchase of oil to buy wood, Hong Kong businessmen across the sea, exported to foreign countries. "Corn sugar" is also named after it. Later, with the advancement of history, the production method of “foreign sugar” has been continuously improved, and the quality has been continuously improved. “Cornose” has evolved into sweet-scented osmanthus sugar, and has been rated as a national quality product. Medal.
Sweet-scented osmanthus sugar is made from oil-dipped rice and decocted with sugar, with sweet-scented osmanthus as the heart sugar, suitable for fire, uniform on the hemp, and neat. The osmanthus used for making must be fresh and fragrant, until the sweet-scented osmanthus blooms, and the flowers are taken from the trees. Adding sugar to seal, it becomes a raw material for heart sugar. Osmanthus sugar has a strict selection of sweet-scented osmanthus, and its production is also very elegant.
Osmanthus sugar is one of the specialties of Taoyuan, famous in China and abroad. But the legend of sweet-scented osmanthus sugar is not known to everyone. Many years ago, there was a green laurel tree in Taohuayuan. The trunk of this green laurel tree is not thick, but the branches and leaves grow extraordinarily lush. It took a fight in twenty-five years and a flower in fifty years. When the sweet-scented osmanthus is opened, the scent is so strong and strong that it floats far and far. Floating to the mountains, the mountains are fragrant; floating in the water, the water is fragrant. People who have drawn far and near have come here to see sweet-scented osmanthus. From flowers to flowers, there are a lot of days in the days. Therefore, when the flowers are opened, the people who come to enjoy the flowers are always there.
This year, the green laurel tree blossomed again, but when the sweet-scented osmanthus was just opened, it encountered a gust of wind and the flowers were blown to the ground. It was swept away by the wind and swept into the corner of the mountain. I only heard the "bang" burst into a pile of soil and buried the sweet-scented osmanthus in the soil. The people who came to see the flowers felt very strange. The green laurel tree should bloom. How can the leaves only see the leaves? However, they talked back for a while and then forgot about it.
The days have passed for more than ten years, and people have smelled the scent of green osmanthus. This scent is thicker and more mellow than before, and it drifts farther, so everyone rushes to see flowers. However, the sweet-scented osmanthus on the green laurel tree did not open. Where did this fragrance come from? It turned out that this aroma was floating from the belly of the soil not far from the green laurel tree, and the soil of the peach blossom source became fragrant.
The news sensationalized the people who fell in the village, and more people came. The brothers of the neighboring village surnamed Wang are also very strange. Back home, my brother asked his brother incomprehensibly, how could Tuba get fragrant? My brother also thinks that there is a lot of fame in it. As soon as the brothers discussed it, they decided to dig up the dirt and take a look. The younger brother was in a hurry, took his gimmick and left, and his brother followed. They dug in the scented soil, dug, dug for three days and three nights, and dug into the three-three-three. Finally, the hoe dug down and rushed out of the belly, and the brothers were drunk and drunk. On the ground, after a long, long time, they just woke up, blinking, the ground covered with sweet-scented osmanthus, covered with sweet-scented osmanthus, the aroma of the belly with osmanthus is still sprayed on the ground. How can you spurt Guilai? The two brothers were silent, and this reminded me that the green laurel tree only opened a flower more than ten years ago, and the sweet-scented osmanthus has no trace of it. Isn't the osmanthus buried in this belly? It’s been buried for more than ten years, and it’s so fragrant now, so mellow! The brothers held the osmanthus under the nose and smelled it. The fragrant aroma was a bit of alcohol, and it was tasted in the mouth, soft and sweet. They took these osmanthus flowers to their homes, dug a big pit and sealed them with mud. Since then, they have started the osmanthus business. It is said that the osmanthus flowers that bloomed only once in 50 years are all vying to buy. In just a few days, the osmanthus picked up has sold a lot. When the two brothers discussed it, they came up with a new way: use rice to make sugar, a pot of sugar, and sprinkle a sweet-scented osmanthus. This sugar is on the market, it sells fast, people eat sweet, smell the incense. Who is not rushing to buy it? The brothers made money and started to go all the way. They don’t sell anything else, they sell this sugar.
The sugar made by the brothers gradually became famous, and the craftsmanship became more and more refined. Later, it was named as sugar, which is the later sweet-scented osmanthus sugar. Sweet-scented osmanthus sugar is still a specialty of Taoyuan.
Sour horn candy
A croissant is a kind of candy that is processed by using a tamarind as a raw material. The raw material is taken from the local natural non-polluting sour horn. It is refined by special technology and is non-polluting. It is a natural green food. It has a gelatinous appearance, fine taste and excellent flavor. It tastes life in sweet and sour taste. The wonderful, it is rich in multi-vitamins, appetizing and relaxing, it is a fashionable snack food for holiday and relaxation.